Turkish is one of the nearly 40 Turk languages. It is most closely related to the Azerbaijani language. It is the native or second language of more than 80 million people. These people live primarily in Turkey and in the Balkans. Emigrants also took Turkish to Europe, America and Australia. Turkish has also been influenced by other languages. The vocabulary contains words from Arabic and French. A hallmark of the Turkish language is the many different dialects. The Istanbul dialect is considered the basis for today’s standard language. The grammar distinguishes between six cases.
The agglutinating language structure is also characteristic for Turkish. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixes. There is a fixed sequence to these endings but there can be many of them. This principle differentiates Turkish from the Indo-Germanic languages.